Germany Country Profile (World Bank)
Status under International Climate Change Law
- UNFCCC: signature and ratification (8 Dec 1993)
- KP: signature and ratification (31 May 2002)
- Quantified emission limitation or reduction commitment: -8
- Vienna Convention: signature and ratification (15 May 1987)
- Montreal Protocol: signature and ratification (16 Dec 1988)
- LRTAP: signature and ratification (15 Jul 1982) as well as signature and ratification of 1984, 1988, 1991, 1994, 1998 (both) and 1999 Protocols
- Energy Charter: signature and ratification (13 Dec 1996)
- Energy Efficiency Protocol: signature and ratification (13 Dec 1996)
- Espoo Convention: signature and ratification (10 Oct 1997)
- 2030 Commitment: 40% domestic reduction in emissions below 1990 levels by 2030, to be fulfilled jointly by European Union member states (14% reduction in domestic emissions below 2005 levels by 2020, in accordance with Decision No. 406/2009/EC of the European Parliament and Council)
Federal Laws on Climate Change
- Integrated Climate and Energy Programme (2007 and 2008) to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 40% by 2020 compared with 1990 levels [English, German].
- German Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change (17 December 2008) to create a framework for adapting to the impacts of climate change [English, German].
- Energy Concept for an Environmentally Sound, Reliable and Affordable Energy Supply (28 September 2010) to set out a long-term energy strategy to 2050 that will provide an environmentally sound, reliable and affordable energy supply [English, German].
- Biofuel Quota Act (1 January 2007, amended 17 September 2009) to achieve a 17% biofuels target by 2020.
- Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) (25 October 2008, amended in 2009 and 2011) to replace the law on feeding electricity from renewable resources into the public grid of 7 December 1990 (Electricity Grid Feed Act) [English, German].
- Renewable Energies Heat Act (7 August 2008, amended 2009 and 2011) to create a statutory obligation to cover a percentage of heat demand from renewable energy sources. [English]
- Energy Saving Ordinance (EnEV) (24 July 2007, amended 29 April 2009)on energy-saving insulation and energy-saving systems technology in buildings. [English]
- Energy Industry Act (13 July 2005) to create a framework policy to enhance competition, security of supply and sustainable energy production. [English]
- Law on the Conservation, Modernisation and Development of Combined Heat and Power (CHP)(19 March 2002, amended 15 October 2008 and 21 August 2009) to replace the 2000 law on combined heat and power.
- Law to amend the Mineral Oil Tax Law and Renewable Energy Law (June 2002) to raise the cap on total photovoltaic capacity that is eligible for premium payments under the renewable energy law and extends mineral oil tax exemption to cover all biomass fuels. [English]
- Act amending the regulatory framework for electricity from PV (EEG change) (Gesetz zur Änderung des Rechtsrahmens für Strom aus PV [EEG- Änderung]) (23 August 2012) to introduce monthly tariff degressions in the national feed-in tariff (FiT), replacing the annual FiT cut that typically occurs in January. [English]
- Act amending the combined Heat and Power Act (KWK) (Gesetz zur Änderung des Kraft-Wärme-Kopplungsgesetzes [KWK]) (19 July 2002) to increase the electricity generation from combined heat and power plants, to support of the launch of the fuel cell and the funding for construction and expansion of heating and cooling systems. [English]
National Plans, Programs and Initiatives
- The German Government’s Climate Action Programme 2020 (Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation) (2014) [English]
- Energy Concept for an Environmentally Sound, Reliable and Affordable Energy Supply (Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology and Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety) (2010) [English]
- German Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change (German Federal Cabinet) (2008) [English]
- Adaptation Action Plan of the German Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change (German Federal Cabinet) (2011) [English]
Local, State, and Regional Legislation and Initiatives
- European Union Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) (2015)
- EU Adaptation Strategy Package (European Commission)
- European Climate Adaptation Platform (Climate ADAPT)
- 2020 Climate & Energy Package (European Commission) (2007)
- Decision No. 406/2009/EC of the European Parliament and Council of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the effort of Member States to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to meet the Community’s greenhouse gas emission reduction commitments up to 2020 (European Parliament and Council) (2009)
- Directive 2010/31/EU of The European Parlaiment and of The Council of 19 May 2010 on the energy performance of buildings (European Parliament and Council) (2010)
- Directive 2012/27/EU of The European Parlaiment and of The Council of 25 October 2012 on energy efficiency(European Parliament and Council) (2012)
- European Union Trading Scheme (EU ETS) (European Commission)
- 2014 Annex I Party GHG Inventory Submissions
- Sixth National Communication under the UNFCCC (2014) [English]
- Second Biennial Report to the UNFCCC (2015) [English]
- Germany Climate change impacts on water systems (OECD Secretariat) (2013)
- Germany (Europe’s Energy Portal)
- EU Country Profile (Climate Action Tracker) (2015)
- Determining the climate impact of the German government’s Integrated Energy and Climate Programme (IEKP) and proposing a plan to continuously monitor its climate impact (UmweltBundesAmt) (2012)
- Hans-Joachim Koch et al., Germany, in CLIMATE CHANGE LIABILITY, 376-416 (Richard Lord et al. eds., Cambridge University Press 2011)