Status under International Climate Change Law

  • UNFCCC: signature (10 June 1992), ratification (1 Nov 1993), and entry into force (21 March 1994)
  • KP: accession (26 August 2002) and entry into force (16 February 2005)
    • Quantified emission limitation or reduction commitment: N/A
  • Vienna Convention: accession (18 Mar 1991)
  • Montreal Protocol: accession (19 Jun 1992)
  • LRTAP: N/A
  • Energy Charter: N/A
  • Espoo Convention: N/A
  • 2030 Commitment: 33-35% reduction in carbon intensity below 2005 levels by 2030.
    • INDC summary – includes LULUCF and gases covered (Center for Climate and Energy Solutions 2015)
    • INDC summary – includes adaptation and conditions for implementation (Climate Policy Observer 2016)

Laws on Climate Change


  • The Environmental (Protection) Act of 1986, Act No. 29 to act as an “umbrella” legislation designed to provide a frame work for Central government co-ordination of the activities of various central and state authorities established under previous laws, such as Water Act & Air Act.

Air protection


  • The Energy Conservation Act of 2001, No. 52, 29 September 2001, to provide for efficient use of energy and its conservation and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
  • Energy Conservation (Amendment) Act, 2010, No. 28, 24 August 2010, to amend the Energy Conservation Act of 2001
  • Electricity Act 2003, Amended 2007, to better coordinate development of the power sector by providing a comprehensive framework for power development.


  • The Indian Forest Act of 1927, No. 16, 21 September 1927, to consolidate the law relating to forests, the transit of forest-produce and the duty leviable on timber and other forest- produce.
  • Forest Conservation Act of 1980, No. 69, 27 December 1980, to provide for the conservation of forests and for matters connected therewith or ancillary or incidental thereto.

Environmental Impact Assessment

  • The National Green Tribunal Act, 2010, No. 19, 2 June 2010, to provide for the establishment of a Green Tribunal for the effective and expeditious disposal of cases relating to environmental protection and conservation of forests and other natural resources including enforcement of any legal right relating to environment and giving relief and compensation for damages to persons or property and for matters concerned therewith or incidental thereto.
  • The National Environment Appellate Authority Act, 1997, No. 22, 26 March 1997, to provide for the establishment of a National Environment Appellate Authority to hear appeals with respect to restriction of areas in which any industries, operations or processes or class of industries, operations or processes, shall not be carried out or shall be carried out subject to certain safeguards under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 and for matters concerned therewith or incidental thereto.


  • The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act, 1977, 7 December 1977, amended 1992, to provide for the levy and collection of a cess on water consumed by persons carrying on certain industries and by local authorities, with a view to augment the resources of the Central Board and the State Boards for the prevention and control of water pollution constituted under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974.
  • The Coastal Regulation Zone Notifications, 1991, 19 February 1991, amended 16 August 1994 and 18 April 1996, to impose the following restrictions on the setting up and expansion of industries, operations or processes, etc., in the said Coastal Regulation Zone.


  • The Wildlife (Protection Act) Amendment Act, 2002, No. 16 of 2003, 17 January 2003, to provide for the protection of wild animals, birds and plants and for matters connected therewith or ancillary or incidental thereto with a view to ensuring the ecological and environmental security of the country
  • Biological Diversity Act, 2002, No. 18 of 2003, 5 February 2003, to to provide for conservation of biological diversity, sustainable use of its components and fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the use of biological resources, knowledge and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

Government Documents

Additional Resources

Summaries of legislation compiled from Terry Townsend et al., The GLOBE Climate Legislation Study (3d ed. 2013).

Updated as of: December 3, 2014