Italy Country Profile (World Bank)

Status under International Climate Change Law

  • UNFCCC: signature and ratification (15 Apr 1994)
  • KP: signature and ratification (31 May 2002)
    • Quantified emission limitation or reduction commitment: – 8%
  • Vienna Convention: signature and ratification (19 Sept 1988)
  • Montreal Protocol: signature and ratification (16 Dec 1988)
  • LRTAP: signature and ratification (15 Jul 1982) as well as signature and ratification of all Protocols except for the Heavy Metal and Acidification ones (signature only)
  • Energy Charter: signature and ratification (5 Dec 1997)
  • Energy Efficiency Protocol: signature and ratification (5 Dec 1997)
  • Espoo Convention: ratification (19 Jan 1995)
  • 2030 Commitment: 40% domestic reduction in emissions below 1990 levels by 2030, to be fulfilled jointly by European Union member states; 13% reduction in domestic emissions below 2005 levels by 2020, in accordance with Decision No. 406/2009/EC of the European Parliament and Council
    • INDC summary – includes LULUCF and gases covered (Center for Climate and Energy Solutions 2015)
    • INDC summary – includes adaptation and conditions for implementation (Climate Policy Observer 2016)

Federal Laws on Climate Change


  • Introduction of the Green Certificates System (Legislative decree 79/99 of 16 March 1999 entitled; Ministry of Productive Activities decree 18.03.02; Followed by Ministry of Productive Activities decree 14.03.04, implementing the rules for the green certificates) (2002) to complete the introduction of a cap-and-trade mechanism to promote renewable energy sources (MICA Decree 11/11/99).
  • Fund for greenhouse gas emissions reduction and energy efficiency (Finance Law 2001 Art. 10) (2001) to establish a fund for the reduction of atmospheric emissions and the promotion of energy efficiency and sustainable energy sources.
  • Provisions on greenhouse gas emissions reduction (Kyoto targets) (CIPE resolutions: 137/98; 126/99; 123/02; Budget Law 2007; Ministerial Decree 25.11.2008) (1998) to establish guidelines for the national policies and measures for greenhouse gas emissions reductions.
  • Ministerial Decree 4 June 2001, “Programmi di rilievo nazionale per la riduzione delle emissioni di gas serra, in attuazione dell’art. 3 del D.M. 20 luglio 2000, n. 337”
  • Delibera CIPE 19 November 1998, “Linee guida per le politiche e misure nazionali di riduzione delle emissioni dei gas serra”.
  • Ministerial Decree 11 May 2012. Approvazione della Guida al risparmio di carburante ed alle emissioni di CO2
  • Decree of President of Republic 27 january  2012, “Gas fluorurati a effetto serra – Attuazione regolamento Ce 842/2006”
  • Legislative Decree 14 September 2011, n. 162, “Attuazione della direttiva 2009/31/Ce in materia di stoccaggio geologico della CO2”
  • Legislative Decree 4 April 2006, n. 216, “Attuazione delle direttive 2003/87 e 2004/101/Ce in materia di scambio di quote di emissioni dei gas a effetto serra nella Comunità”

Air protection

  • Part Fifty of Legislative Decree 5 aprile 2006, n. 152, Italian Environmental Code


  • Finance Law (2010) to provide incentives for energy efficient buildings and the use of biofuel.
  • Special fund to support the implementation of energy efficiency targets (Decree Law, no. 40) (25 March 2010)to establish a special fund for the implementation of objectives related to energy efficiency, environmental protection and workplace safety.
  • Cleaner vehicle purchase incentives (Decree Law, No. 5) (2009) to replace old vehicles with new ones meeting certain environmental criteria and to support industrial sectors in crisis.
  • Law concerning anti-crisis measures: energy provisions (Law no. 102) (3 August 2009) to accelerate the deployment of more advanced, efficient, and energy-saving technologies.
  • Finance Law 2008 (Law no. 244 24/12/2007 and Law no/ 222 23/11/2007; M.D. 18.2.08; Law 99/09) (2008) to confirm the 2007 Budget Law measures and extend the deadline of borne measures from December 2007 to 2010, concerning green certificates and Italy’s “all inclusive tariff.”
  • New Feed-In premium for photovoltaic Systems (Ministerial Decree) (18 February 2007) to introduce a new version of the feed-in premium scheme applied to photovoltaic plants connected to the grid with a nominal capacity higher than 1kWp realized by individuals, registered companies, condominiums, and public bodies.
  • Finance Law (2007) to provide for various fiscal incentives and financial measures to improve energy efficiency and to abate emissions.
  • White Certificate Trading for End-Use Energy Efficiency (2005) requiring Italian electricity and gas suppliers to help their customers save energy and engendered the 2005 White Certificates Trading Scheme.
  • Biofuel (Decree no. 128/2005) (2005) to establish a national indicative target of 2.5% of substitution of traditional fuels with biofuels by 31 December 2010.
  • Reorganisation of Energy Sector Regulation (Law, no. 239) (23 August 2004) to devolve power to Italian regions to promote energy efficiency and renewable energy sources while maintaining the national scale of such promotion.
  • Legislative Decree 29 December 2003, n. 387, “Attuazione della direttiva 2001/77/CE relativa alla promozione dell’energia elettrica prodotta da fonti energetiche rinnovabili nel mercato interno dell’elettricità”
  • Utility targets for increasing energy efficiency/introduction of white certificates (Ministerial Decree) (24 April 2001, amended 2007) to establish national targets for increasing energy efficiency in end-uses of energy up to 2012 for electricity and gas distributors.
  • National Plan for Biofuels and Biomass (CIPE resolutions: 15/02/2000 [PROBIO]; 24/06/1998 [PNERB]; 18/06/1999 [PNVBAF]) (2000) to promote the deployment of biomass to replace fossil fuels through incentive systems.
  • Law  9 January 1991, n 10, “Norme per l’attuazione del Piano energetico nazionale in materia di uso razionale, di energia, di risparmio energetico e di sviluppo delle fonti rinnovabili di energia”
  • Legislative Decree 16 March n. 79 “Attuazione della direttiva 96/92/CE recante norme comuni per il mercato interno dell’energia elettrica”
  • Legislative Decree 23 May n. 164, “Attuazione della direttiva n. 98/30/CE recante norme comuni per il mercato interno del gas naturale, a norma dell’articolo 41 della legge 17 maggio 1999, n. 144.”
  • Ministerial Decree 11 November 1999, “Direttive per l’attuazione delle norme in materia di energia elettrica da fonti rinnovabili di cui ai commi 1, 2 e 3 dell’articolo 11 del D. Lgs. 16 marzo 1999, n. 79”


  • Legislative Decree  18 May 2001, n. 227, Orientation and modernization of the forestry sector

Environmental Impact Assessment

  •  Second Part of  of Legislative Decree 5 April 2006, n. 152, Italian Environmental Code


  • Third Part about water law  and land development in Legislative Decree 5 April 2006, n. 152, Italian Environmental Code
  • Fourth  Part about waste management  in Legislative Decree 5 april 2006, n. 152, Italian Environmental Code
  •  Legislative Decree 22 January 2004, n. 42, Code of cultural heritage and landscape
  • Decree of President of Republic 8 September 1997, n. 357, modified by D.P.R 12 March 2003, n. 120 about  the “Valutazione di incidenza”

National Plans, Programs and Initiatives

  • Climate Change Action Plan (2007) to set out a comprehensive action plan aimed at helping Italy comply with greenhouse gas reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol.
  • Voluntary Climate Pact (1999) to voluntarily curb C02 emissions, improve energy efficiency in the industrial, energy, and transport sectors, and to promote the use of renewable energy by industry organisations, environmental NGOs, and other groups in Italy.
  • Strategy to Cut National Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Kyoto Implementation) (2002) to provide a strategy for cutting national greenhouse gas emissions by 6.5$ on 1990 levels by 2008-2012, as agreed under the Kyoto Protocol.

Local, State, and Regional Legislation and Initiatives

Government Documents

Additional Resources

  • Italy Climate change impacts on water systems (OECD Secretariat) (2013)
  • Italy (Europe’s Energy Portal)
  • EU Country Profile (Climate Action Tracker) (2015)
  • Publications:
    • Matteo Benozzo and Francesco Bruno, La tutela della biodiversità, Giuffrè, Milan (2009)
    • Luigi Costato and Franco Pellizzer, Commento breve al Codice dell’ambiente, Second  Edition,  Cedam, Padua (2012)
    • Alberto Germanò, Eva Rook Basile, Francesco Bruno and Matteo Benozzo, Commento al Codice dell’ambiente, Second Edition,  Giappichelli, Turin (2012)