Malaysia Country Profile (World Bank)

  • Country overview:
  • Population: 28.4 million (World Bank, 2010).
  • GDP/capita: US$ 8,194/US$ 16,201 in PPP (2010 MDG Report).
  • Key economic sectors: Industry, Transport, Oil and Gas, Agriculture, Bank and Finance.
  • Poverty rate (current and trend): from 3.8% (2007, CIA) to 2.0% (2015 est., 10MP)
  • Main source of income: exports of oil and gas, electronics, palm oil and rubber (CIA)
  • FDI: US$ 77,440 million (2009, CIA)
  • Demographic situation: 72.2% urban/27.8% rural, urbanization ranging from 35% to 90% (WB, 2010)
  • Analysis of existing climate change legislation and other policy initiatives reveals a strong focus on the energy sector. Malaysia is the world’s largest exporter and the second largest producer of crude palm oil.

Status under International Climate Change Law

  • UNFCCC: signature (9 Mar 1993) and ratification (13 July 1994)
  • KP: signature (12 March 1999) and ratification (4 Sept 2002)

o   Quantified emission limitation or reduction commitment: Malaysia does not have an international emission reduction pledge, but has according to its national policies (materialized in the planned target of the “National Energy Efficiency & Conservation Master Plan” and the renewable energy capacity target) the country has an emission level target of about 280 MtCO2e in 2020, compared to a BAU emission level of 330 MtCO2e.

  • Vienna Convention: ratification (29 Aug 1989)
  • Montreal Protocol: ratification (29 Aug 1989)
  • Energy Charter: NA
  • Energy Efficiency Protocol: NA
  • Espoo Convention: NA
  • 2030 Commitment: 35% reduction (45% conditional) in emissions intensity of GDP below 2005 levels by 2030
    • INDC summary – includes LULUCF and gases covered (Center for Climate and Energy Solutions 2015)
    • INDC summary – includes adaptation and conditions for implementation (Climate Policy Observer 2016)

Federal Laws on Climate Change


Forests and Land Use

National Plans, Programs and Initiatives

Government Documents

Additional Resources

Summaries of legislation compiled from Nachmany, M., et al. 2014. “The GLOBE Climate Legislation Study: A Review of Climate Change Legislation in 66 Countries. Fourth Edition.” London: GLOBE International and the Grantham Research Institute, London School of Economics.

Updated as of: March 28, 2016