Malaysia Country Profile (World Bank)
- Country overview:
- Population: 28.4 million (World Bank, 2010).
- GDP/capita: US$ 8,194/US$ 16,201 in PPP (2010 MDG Report).
- Key economic sectors: Industry, Transport, Oil and Gas, Agriculture, Bank and Finance.
- Poverty rate (current and trend): from 3.8% (2007, CIA) to 2.0% (2015 est., 10MP)
- Main source of income: exports of oil and gas, electronics, palm oil and rubber (CIA)
- FDI: US$ 77,440 million (2009, CIA)
- Demographic situation: 72.2% urban/27.8% rural, urbanization ranging from 35% to 90% (WB, 2010)
- Analysis of existing climate change legislation and other policy initiatives reveals a strong focus on the energy sector. Malaysia is the world’s largest exporter and the second largest producer of crude palm oil.
Status under International Climate Change Law
- UNFCCC: signature (9 Mar 1993) and ratification (13 July 1994)
- KP: signature (12 March 1999) and ratification (4 Sept 2002)
o Quantified emission limitation or reduction commitment: Malaysia does not have an international emission reduction pledge, but has according to its national policies (materialized in the planned target of the “National Energy Efficiency & Conservation Master Plan” and the renewable energy capacity target) the country has an emission level target of about 280 MtCO2e in 2020, compared to a BAU emission level of 330 MtCO2e.
- Vienna Convention: ratification (29 Aug 1989)
- Montreal Protocol: ratification (29 Aug 1989)
- LRTAP: NA
- Energy Charter: NA
- Energy Efficiency Protocol: NA
- Espoo Convention: NA
- 2030 Commitment: 35% reduction (45% conditional) in emissions intensity of GDP below 2005 levels by 2030
Federal Laws on Climate Change
- Renewable Energy Act (2011) [English]
- Sustainable Energy Development Authority Act 2011: [English, Bahasa Malaysia].
- Efficient Management of Electrical Energy Regulations 2008 [English, Malay]
- Malaysia Biofuels Industry Act (2007) [English]
- Feed-in Tariff Guidelines [English]
- Renewable Energy Rules and Regulation [English and Malay]
- National Biofuel Policy (2006)
Forests and Land Use
- National Forestry Act 1984 (incorporating amendments up to 2006)
National Plans, Programs and Initiatives
- National Policy on Climate Change (Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment) (2009) [English and Malay]
- National Renewable Energy Policy and Action Plan (2009) [English]
- Fiscal incentives for end users (untill December 2015) [English]
- Initial National Communication to the UNFCCC (2000) [English]
- Second National Communicaiton to the UNFCCC (2011) [English]
- Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) (Revised) (2016) [English]
- Climate Change Scenarios for Malaysia (2001 – 2099) (Malaysian Meteorological Department) (2009)
- The Globe Climate Legislation Study (Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment) (2014)
- Development of a National Policy on Climate Change: Malaysia’s Experience (International Institute of Public Policy and Management)
- Malaysia’s Response to Climate Change (Malaysia Meteorological Service)
- Climate Change Country Profile: Malaysia (World Health Organization)
- Stakeholder Consultation in the Development of Climate Change Policy: Malaysia’s Approach (Institute for Environment and Development) (2009)
Summaries of legislation compiled from Nachmany, M., et al. 2014. “The GLOBE Climate Legislation Study: A Review of Climate Change Legislation in 66 Countries. Fourth Edition.” London: GLOBE International and the Grantham Research Institute, London School of Economics.
Updated as of: March 28, 2016