Nepal Country Profile (World Bank)

Status under International Climate Change Law

  • UNFCCC: signature (12 June 1992), ratification (2 May 1994), and entry into force (31 July 1994)
  • KP:  ratification (16 September 2005), ratification (16 September 2005), entry into force (12 December 2005)
  • Quantified emission limitation or reduction commitment: N/A
  • Vienna Convention: accession (6 July 1994)
  • Montreal Protocol: accession (6 July 1994)
  • London Amendment: accession (6 July 1994)
  • Copenhagen Amendment: accession (18 May 2012)
  • LRTAP: N/A
  • Energy Charter: N/A
  • Energy Efficiency Protocol: N/A
  • Espoo Convention: N/A
  • 2050 Pledge: no quantified emissions reduction; intention to formulate adaptation plans and to achieve 80% electrification through renewable energy sources

Federal Laws on Climate Change


  • Climate Change Policy (2011) [English] aims to mitigate the effects of climate change and improve citizen livelihood through environmental conservation and sustainable development.
  • Nepal Climate Change Support Program (2013-2015) [English] gives climate change adaptation assistance to the poorest and most vulnerable communities in Nepal.

Air protection

  • Nepal Vehicle Mass Emission Standard 2056 (2012) [Nepali] establishes limitations on vehicle fuel emissions to enhance environmental cleanliness.
  • Nepal Petroleum Act (1985) [English] contains provisions on petroleum usage and agreements. It provides limitations for petroleum operations to ensure environmental safety.


Forests and Land Use

  • Nepal Biodiversity Conservation Strategy (2002) [English] manages and protects biological resources and ecosystems while ensuring an equitable and sustainable share of environmental benefits.
  • Forestry Sector Policy (2000) [English] determines the institutional arrangement and management for forestry sector program.
  • Forest Regulations (1995) [English] builds upon the Forestry Act of Nepal and enacts sanctions against forest-related illegal activities.
  • Forestry Act of Nepal (1993) [English] aims to meet the basic needs of local people, improve the quality of the environment, and advance Nepal’s economic and social development, acknowledges five different types of national forest: community forest, leasehouse forest, government-managed forest, religious forest, and protected forest.

Environmental Impact Assessment

  • Environmental Protection Act (1997) [English] was established to protect lands, control pollution, and support environmental conservation.
  • Nepal Environmental Policy and Action Plan (NEPAP) (1993) [English] is designed to efficiently and sustainably develop natural and physical resources while increasing awareness of human impact on the environment


  • National Water Plan (2005) [English] targets water use issues related to agriculture, tourism, hydroelectric power production potential, and ecosystem services.
  • National Conservation Strategy (1988)  [English] works with the International Union for Conservation of Natural Resources (IUCN) to promote sustainable development in Nepal.
  • Solid Waste Management Act (2011) [English] arranges for the systematic and effective management of solid waste in Nepal to minimize risks to the environment and citizens’ health.

National Plans, Programs and Initiatives

Local, State, and Regional Legislation and Initiatives

Government Documents

Additional Resources

Summaries of legislation compiled from Terry Townsend et al., The GLOBE Climate Legislation Study (3d ed. 2013).

Updated as of: 14 July 2014