Non-GHG Emission Standards for Industrial Boilers and Incinerators
The following emission standards target conventional pollutants and air toxics, but also have the co-benefit of reducing GHG emissions:
- Air Toxics Standards for Major Source Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters
- Air Toxics Standards for Area Source Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters
- Revised NSPS and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units
Air Toxics Standards for Major Source Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters
In March 2011, EPA promulgated national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAPs) from three major source categories: industrial boilers, commercial and institutional boilers, and process heaters. The emission standards reflect the maximum achievable control technology (MACT) for control of mercury, hydrogen chloride, particulate matter, and carbon monoxide from coal-fired, biomass-fired, and liquid-fired major source boilers.
Upon reviewing reconsideration requests for the 2011 rule, in January 2013, EPA published a revised rule adjusting emission limits for different types of units subject to the regulations (some more stringent, some less), and establishing an alternative emission standard for carbon monoxide. After receiving further reconsideration requests, in November 2015, EPA published a new final rule making changes to the definitions pertaining to unit startup and shutdown. The new rule also made certain technical corrections to the previous rule.
Air Toxics Standards for Area Source Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters
In March 2011, EPA also published NESHAPs for two area source categories: industrial boilers and commercial and institutional boilers. The rule requires MACT for control of mercury and polycyclic organic
matter emissions from coal-fired area source boilers, and requires generally available control technology (GACT) or management practices for control of hazardous air pollutants emissions from biomass-fired and oil-fired area source boilers. In February 2013, EPA responded to reconsideration requests with a new rule revising compliance dates and making certain technical corrections. In September 2016, EPA responded to further reconsideration requests by revising: the alternative particulate matter (PM) standard for new oil-fired boilers; performance testing for PM for certain boilers; and fuel sampling for mercury for certain coal-fired boilers. EPA also made certain technical corrections in this final rule.
Revised NSPS and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units
EPA regulates nine pollutants (particulate matter, carbon monoxide, dioxins/furans, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrogen chloride, lead, mercury, and cadmium) from four types of incinerators (municipal solid waste; hospital, medical and infectious solid waste; commercial and industrial solid waste; and other solid waste). In March 2011, EPA published a final rule revising standards applicable to these incineration facilities: NSPS and emission guidelines for existing sources. In February 2013, EPA made certain technical and clarifying amendments. In June 2016, EPA made further minor amendments. In January 2017, EPA proposed a federal plan to implement emission guidelines in states without an approved state plan to implement the guidelines.